ISSN 2586-0151 (Print)
ISSN 2586-0046 (Online)
Volume 16, Number 2 (2/2020)
Original Article <page. 76-82 >

A Mediating Effect of Embitterment on the Effects of Anxiety & Depressive Symptoms on Suicide in Patients with Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

Namgil Ryu, MD1;Jihoon Oh, MD, PhD1;Hyeon-Hee Shim, MA2; and Jeong-Ho Chae, MD, PhD1;

1;Department of Psychiatry, Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 2;The Catholic Emotion Research Laboratory, Catholic Biomedical Industrial Institute, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea

Objective : Previous studies have shown that depression, anxiety and embitterment are highly related to suicide. This study aims to investigate the mediating effect of embitterment between depression, anxiety and suicide.

Methods : A total of 174 participants with depressive and anxiety disorders were evaluated with STAI-S, STAI-T, PHQ-9, PTED scale, SSI and suicide attempt history. A mediation analysis using bootstrapping was utilized in order to estimate the indirect effects of depression and anxiety on suicide through embitterment.

Results : Embitterment significantly mediated the relationship between depression and suicidal ideation [b=0.291, 95% CI(0.18, 0.40)], and also it mediated the relationship between depression and suicide attempt [b=0.066, 95% CI(0.02, 0.16)]. Although a direct effect of anxiety on suicide attempt was not significant, but embitterment significantly mediated the relationship between anxiety and suicide attempt

Conclusion : This suggests that embitterment may be a significant important factor to consider in the relationship between depression, anxiety and suicide. Understanding the mediating role of embitterment on suicide may helpful to prevent suicide.


Key words : Depression;Anxiety;Embitterment;PTED;Suicidal ideation;Suicide attempt;Mediation.

Anxiety and Mood

This Article